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Spontaneous Abortion or Miscarriage Panda.Healthcare

Spontaneous Abortion or Miscarriage: Causes, Symptoms, and Support

February 07, 2024 11:56

February 08, 2024 5:32

Reading time: 7 minutes


Spontaneous abortion, also known as a miscarriage, is a heartbreaking event that affects many women and their partners. It refers to the loss of a pregnancy before the 20-week mark. The physical and emotional toll it takes can be significant, but understanding the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation process can help individuals navigate this difficult experience with the necessary support and care.

Causes of Spontaneous Abortion:

Miscarriages can occur due to various factors, and often, the exact cause remains unknown. However, some common causes include:

1. Chromosomal abnormalities: The majority of miscarriages are caused by a chromosomal abnormality in the fetus. These genetic issues typically arise spontaneously during conception or early development, leading to the termination of the pregnancy.

2. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal imbalances, especially related to progesterone and estrogen, can contribute to the disruption of a healthy pregnancy. These imbalances can prevent the embryo from properly implanting in the uterus or impact the development of the placenta, leading to a miscarriage.

3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or a malformed uterus, can increase the risk of a miscarriage.

4. Maternal health conditions: Certain pre-existing health conditions, such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, autoimmune diseases, or an incompetent cervix, can increase the likelihood of a miscarriage.

5. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, and exposure to certain environmental toxins may also contribute to an increased risk of miscarriage.


Diagnosing a miscarriage typically involves a combination of a medical history review, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Healthcare providers may inquire about symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, cramping, and the passing of tissues. A pelvic examination may be conducted, followed by an ultrasound to confirm the viability of the fetus. Blood tests to measure hormone levels and genetic testing may also be performed to identify any underlying causes.

Symptoms of Spontaneous Abortion:

The symptoms of a miscarriage can vary in severity and duration. Common signs to look out for include:

1. Vaginal bleeding: Light to heavy bleeding, ranging from pink to bright red or brown, is often an early sign of a miscarriage.

2. Abdominal pain: Cramping or pain in the lower back or abdomen can accompany vaginal bleeding.

3. Tissue passing: Passing of tissue or clots from the vagina may be an indication of a miscarriage.

4. Loss of pregnancy symptoms: A sudden disappearance of early pregnancy symptoms, such as breast tenderness or morning sickness, might suggest a miscarriage.

5. Decreased fetal movement: If you have been feeling fetal movements and then notice a sudden cessation, it may be an indication of a miscarriage.

Forms of miscarriage

There are several forms of miscarriage, each with its characteristics and implications. Here are the details of each type:

1. Threatened Miscarriage: This occurs when vaginal bleeding happens during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, but the cervix is closed and the fetus is still viable. It is typically associated with mild cramping. Close monitoring and bed rest may be advised to prevent further complications.

2. Inevitable Miscarriage: In this type, the cervix starts to dilate, and the membranes enclosing the fetus may rupture. Bleeding and abdominal cramping become more severe, and the miscarriage cannot be prevented. Medical intervention may be required to remove the remaining pregnancy tissue.

3. Incomplete Miscarriage: This occurs when only a portion of the pregnancy tissue is expelled from the uterus. Symptoms include heavy bleeding, severe cramping, and the passing of large clots. Medical intervention is almost always necessary to remove the remaining tissue to avoid infection.

4. Complete Miscarriage: In a complete miscarriage, all pregnancy tissue is expelled from the uterus. Symptoms may include heavy bleeding and strong cramping. Medical intervention is generally not required, but a follow-up with a healthcare provider might be recommended to ensure the uterus is empty.

5. Missed Miscarriage: This type happens when the fetus dies, but the pregnancy tissue remains in the uterus. There may be no symptoms, and the woman may continue to feel pregnant. Medical intervention is necessary to remove the pregnancy tissue.

6. Recurrent Miscarriage: This term is used when a woman experiences three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. It may indicate an underlying medical condition that needs further investigation and treatment.


The treatment for a miscarriage largely depends on the type and stage of the miscarriage, as well as the woman’s overall health. Here are some common approaches:

1. Expectant Management: If the miscarriage is early and the woman is not experiencing severe symptoms, her healthcare provider may propose allowing the natural passing of pregnancy tissue. Close monitoring and follow-up appointments are necessary to ensure the process is complete.

2. Medication: In cases where the miscarriage is incomplete, medications like Misoprostol may be prescribed to aid in the expulsion of the remaining tissue. This option is typically considered when the woman prefers a non-invasive approach.

3. Surgical Intervention: If the miscarriage is deemed incomplete or the woman experiences excessive bleeding or infection risk, a surgical procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) may be recommended. D&C involves dilating the cervix and removing the remaining pregnancy tissue.

Rehabilitation and Emotional Support:

The emotional impact of a miscarriage cannot be overstated, and adequate support is crucial during the rehabilitation phase. Here are some important considerations:

1. Physical Recovery: After a miscarriage, the body needs time to heal. Rest, proper nutrition, and post-miscarriage care guidelines from healthcare providers should be followed to aid in the recovery process.

2. Emotional Support: Coping with the emotional aftermath of a miscarriage is essential. Seeking support from loved ones, participating in counseling or therapy, and joining support groups specifically for individuals who have experienced miscarriages can provide comfort and understanding.

3. Trying Again: Deciding when to try for another pregnancy is a deeply personal choice and may vary for every individual. Healthcare providers can offer guidance based on the circumstances of the miscarriage and any underlying factors that may have contributed to it.

Seeking Medical Help to Support:

If you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above, it is crucial to seek medical attention promptly. Your healthcare provider will assess your condition and may recommend tests, such as blood tests or an ultrasound, to confirm a miscarriage.

During this difficult time, it is essential to seek emotional and psychological support. Connecting with loved ones, joining support groups, or seeking counseling can help you cope with the grief and emotional challenges associated with a miscarriage.

Remember, each person’s experience is unique, and healing may take time. Reach out to healthcare professionals, support organizations, and loved ones to help you navigate the physical and emotional aspects of grief.

Moving Forward and Maintaining a Healthy Lifestyle:

While it is natural to feel discouraged or apprehensive following a miscarriage, it is important to focus on maintaining overall health and well-being. Here are a few suggestions for moving forward:

1. Take care of yourself: Ensure you are eating a balanced diet, getting regular exercise, and prioritizing adequate sleep to support physical and emotional healing.

2. Seek medical guidance: After a miscarriage, consult with your healthcare professional to discuss any concerns, assess your readiness for future pregnancies, and receive personalized advice.

3. Manage stress: Engage in stress-reducing activities such as yoga, meditation, or breathing exercises to promote emotional well-being.

4. Communicate with your partner: Openly share your feelings and support.


Miscarriage is a difficult experience, both physically and emotionally. Understanding the diagnosis, treatment options, and the importance of rehabilitation and emotional support is vital for navigating this challenging journey.

It is significant to remember that each person’s experience is unique, and seeking professional guidance and support can help individuals find healing and hope for the future.


Dr. Kopp Kallner. M.D. in Obstetrics & Gynecology, Columbia University Medical School.

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